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The World has Lost a Great . . .

Gaylan DuBose (1941-2018) Co-Author for Latin Alive

The world has lost a great ____. With these words Father Jerry opened the memorial service for Gaylan DuBose. This, he explained, was the title of his sermon, a title with an intentional empty space. A space that only Gaylan could fill, and fill in a different way for each one of us. Gaylan was an amazing man in so many respects. Each one who had the opportunity to know him was blessed by him. For some it was as “Dubie”, the amazing Latin or English teacher, who never failed to captivate a classroom and inspire the countless students who filled his classrooms for over fifty years. For others it was as the author of countless books on academic subjects, which inspired both students and teachers alike. For still others Gaylan is cherished as the faithful organist at St. Augustine’s Orthodox Church in Pflugerville, TX. Here he worshiped the Lord and blessed the body of Christ for many many years at mass, religious services, and innumerable quinceaneras. For more people than we will lever know he was the incarnation of Matthew 6

“Take heed that you do not do your charitable deeds before men, to be seen by them. Otherwise you have no reward from your Father in heaven. Therefore, when you do a charitable deed, do not sound a trumpet before you as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, that they may have glory from men. Assuredly, I say to you, they have their reward. But when you do a charitable deed, do not let your left hand know what your right hand is doing, that your charitable deed may be in secret; and your Father who sees in secret will Himself reward you openly.

Gaylan’s generosity knew no bounds, particularly to those he saw in need. As a career educator he did not have great wealth, but what he did have he constantly was giving to assist those around him. He gave not only money, but time, advice, action, prayer, and a genuine love for humanity. And in his giving and in his doing he was, as Father Jerry often likes to say, “indefatigable.”

So how does one fill in this blank to articulate what has been lost as Gaylan departs this temporal world for that eternal? Father Jerry prompted the family and friends today to modify this opening line to I have lost a great ____.  So I will answer this charge with whatever tribute I can give in what Gaylan DuBose has meant to me.

My first memory of Gaylan DuBose is as a Latin teacher at Westwood High School in Round Rock (Austin area). Gaylan along with Jo Green, Jane Nethercut, and my own Latin teacher Susan Fugate had years before established the National Junior Classical League in the Austin Area. I and thousands of other students benefited from their great passion and enthusiasm in bringing middle school and high school students together each year to enjoy classical competitions. I clearly remember watching Gaylan interact with his team, with other students, and other sponsors, and thinking to myself that there was a man to be admired. Little did I realize then how our paths would soon connect and where they would lead.

Inspired by my own Latin teacher, Susan Fugate, I pursued a Classics Degree at U.T. Austin with the goal of myself becoming a Latin teacher. The benefit of entering a student teaching program in your home town is that you know exactly who you wan to work with. I had been watching most of these teachers for years and I knew the area schools pretty well. I requested to work with both Susan and Gaylan, both were granted. Upon our first meeting, Gaylan immediately took me under his wing, adopted me as one of his own. He became a second mentor and then a friend. It was in those early years that Gaylan tasked me with volunteering at the JCL art competition. There I assisted the incomparable Franklin Brothers in judging the various works of art, advising on classical themes. This triumvirate were such a joy to work with each year. I learned so much from them on classics, art, and, of even greater value, the art of gentile chivalry. I still run the art contest at our Area JCL convention each year and often I quote them in advising our art judges. The event continues to be a highlight for me because of them.

Those early days would lead to a friendship of 25 + years filled with wisdom, admonition, wonderful teaching ideas, and always encouragement. When Chris Perrin asked that I write what would become the Latin Alive series, I knew I did not want to take on such a task alone. I immediately thought of my mentors and will be forever grateful to Gaylan for joining me in that adventure. I am grateful not only for the great work he contributed, which is of inestimable value, but even more I am grateful for the time with him. For many years we met at the same small orthodox church where I sat at this morning’s memorial service to work through texts together. I would bring my small children, who would play in the fellowship hall while we worked. Gaylan was never bothered by their company, but rather cherished the opportunity to watch them play, drink in their laughter, and delight in the little stories they wanted to share with him. He adopted them as he adopted me so many years before as part of his extended “family” to the extent that after our first book was published Gaylan insisted that I take his royalties for the LAI teacher’s edition along with mine to establish their college fund. The gift of friendship Gaylan had given me, became an inheritance of friendship for my own children.

As the kids grew older and their visits grew less, Gaylan and I reconvened our meetings to the Starbucks in Pflugerville to continue our work on the series, a project that would require more than 8 years to complete. Here I sit now writing this tribute. After leaving the church where we worked together over so many years this coffee shop was the only place I could go. It just felt right. I started to work on my next book, one whose manuscript I had eagerly looked forward to sharing with Gaylan this month. Instead, my thoughts just filled with memories of Gaylan mingled with Father Jerry’s words, “I have lost a great  . . .”

I have lost a great mentor, a writing partner, a friend. And yet, the faith we shared tells me that one day I will see Gaylan again. That hope brings joy in the midst of sorrow. That joy compels my thoughts to drift away from what I have lost to what I, in knowing Gaylan, have gained.

In Gaylan I gained a magnificent mentor, whose creative teaching and penchant for correct grammar lives on in my classroom. I gained a writing partner, who continued to teach me even as we began teaching others. I often feel as though I went through a graduate program 1-1 with the most incredible professor; what greater gift could exist for a life-long learner? Above all I gained a friend, a man who I will forever admire and respect, whose kindness and generosity knew no bounds. This man took the time to call me friend, encourage me, invest in me, and to pour into me and even through me into my own children and my school kids.

Today, I remember the great Gaylan that I gained and the blessing that his life continues to be to mine.

AVE ATQUE VALE, PATER

REQUIESCE IN PACE

magno cum amore,

Karen

Back to School Supplies for Latin!

As we all gear up for the start of another school year, I thought it would be helpful to share some of my favorite study tools for students of all ages and teachers of levels.

Flash Cards – all ages, beginning levels

Index cards have become the quintessential vocabulary study tool. I like using the colored packs as they can provide a creative mnemonic tool for differentiating between parts of speech and the gender of nouns. As students create the cards, they must consider carefully which color to use for each word. As they study the cards they will often subconsciously memorize that color in association with the card. For visual learners, this can be VERY helpful.

Some students will find these tools helpful throughout their years of study and will keep up with them on their own. Others after a few years may drop the practice in favor of other vocab methods in their advanced years.

  • pink – feminine nouns
  • blue – masculine nouns
  • yellow – neuter
  • green – adjectives
  • purple/orange – adverbs
  • white – verbs

Colored Pencils & Highlighters – all levels

I like using colored pencils as a tool for conjugating verbs or declining nouns. I will ask students to write the stem in regular pencil and the series of inflected endings in another color. Students love using colors in class and the varied color change is another subtle yet effective means of learning how to distinguish between stem and endings.

If your students learn Latin via a consumable workbook, highlighters can be helpful in highlighting important definitions or main ideas in a lesson.

As students advance, I find many like to use both colored pencils and/or highlighters to mark up printed copies of a Latin passage. They may use parentheses to identify clauses, or draw arrows to signify agreement. In complex poetry where word order is very loose, they may underline one noun-adjective pair in blue and another in red. This is particular useful when studying rhetorical word patterns such as synchises and chiasmus.

Latin Dictionaries – middle and high school students

I am often asked for recommendations for Latin dictionaries. I typically allow students the freedom to choose the one that best suites their own learning style. However, I recommend either Cassell’s Latin Dictionary or the Collins Gem Latin Dictionary. I like these because they write out all the principle parts. Some dictionaries will omit the second principle part (i.e. infinitive) and instead include a number 1, 2, 3, or 4 to identify the conjugation. Students are expected to infer what the infinitive will look like based on the number of the conjugation. That is fine in theory, but many students find that confusing. Advise students to thumb through a copy before they buy. These can be found at most major book stores and at discount stores such as Half-Prince Books. Most of my students prefer Collins Gem because they like the compact “pocket” size.

Grammar Cards – Grammar/Elementary School

Memoria Press offers a really nice set of grammar cards in two different sizes. There is a desk size that a student may keep at his own personal desk. These can easily be pulled out for close individual reference in class or at home. For many students these large laminated cards are very handy when placed on the table next to their work for quick easy reference (as opposed to flipping through pages at the back of the book). Memoria Press also carries larger wall charts that can be posted in any classroom.

Grammar Cards – Upper School

All grammar textbooks will contain an appendix with reference charts. As students move past these texts into transitional or advanced Latin readings, they many not always have such an appendix in their reading source. My students love the Graphic Latin Grammar Cards from Bolchazy-Carducci. These provide a very comprehensive listing of all noun, verb, adjective, and participle forms (irregular words too) as well as some concise reminders on syntax. If I forget to pass these out at the beginning of the year, they ask for them by name within the first couple weeks. These are a great tool to have ready at hand when working through Latin readings.  (Bolchazy-Carducci also offers Greek Graphic Grammar Cards for Greek lovers!)

STAMPS! – for students or teachers

I absolutely LOVE a good stamp. Most teachers I know do too. When a student has done well on an assignment, particularly if it is a break-through moment or a personal best, I love putting a sticker or stamp on the paper.  I find that even high school students appreciate a little stamp-love. One of my colleagues, the indominable Ginny Lindzey, recently created a whole series of Latin Classroom Stamps. Whether you are a teacher who likes a motivational stamp or a student who wants to add a bit of Latin stamp art to your assignment, or you are a stamp fan who enjoys the stationary thing, you will enjoy these!

Do you have some favorite tools for Latin study that you would like to recommend?  Please share in the comments below.

 

Newton’s Prinicipia: a lesson in Latin and Science

Once I asked my good friend Ravi Jain if I were to include a Latin reading from a math/science source in my reader, what would he advise. Ravi is a math-science teacher at the Geneva School in Orlando. He is also the co-author of The Liberal Arts Tradition: A Philosophy of Christian Classical EducationRavi is very well versed in subjects on math, science, philosophy, theology, and even a bit of language. Moreover, he is a wonderfully engaging teacher, and thus the perfect person to direct me to the best resources to mine gems on Latin and science. When I asked Ravi for his recommendation on a Latin piece by which to study science his immediate response was Isaac Newton’s Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. 

This work, originally published on July 5, 1687, has since been considered one of the most important works in the history of science. It is in this work that Newton sets forth the laws of motion, which form the foundation of classical mechanics; the universal law of gravitation; and a derivation of Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. Full copies of the original work can be found in Latin or various translations online. On Ravi’s advice, I chose passages covering the three laws of motion for the Latin Alive Reader; for this classical set of laws is well known to most students even if they have not yet studied physics. The rest of this post will be dedicated to how I teach Newton’s laws of motion via Latin or teach Latin via Newton’s laws. Whichever way one chooses to look at it.

 

Reading the Principia:

Caveat Magister: The Principia will not “read” like most Latin texts read in class, and may even differ from all those you have read in most teachers’ own training. This work is neither poetry nor prose, but it is a scientific treatise. The frame work consists of the three leges [laws], each followed by a scholia [lesson] that expounds upon the law. The laws themselves must be read as extended forms of indirect discourse without a proper introductory statement.  For example, normal indirect discourse would read something like:

Lex dicit objectum actioni contrarium semper & aequalem esse reactionem

The main clause, if you will, would be Lex dicit [The law says]. The indirect discourse would be the remainder of the sentence or what the law says. The verb within the indirect discourse is always an infinitive that we would render in English as an indicative verb: actioni contrarium semper & aequalem esse reactionem [for an action there is always an opposite and equal reaction].

Newton, however, foregoes the main clause as he states each law. He just lists the three laws of motion with infinitive vebs in lieu of indicative verbs as is read in indirect discourse.

Actioni contrarium semper & aequalem esse reactionem: sive corporum duorum actiones in se mutuo semper esse aequales & in partes contrarias dirigi.

Teachers will want to point this out to the students before beginining any reading of the Prinicipia as this unfamiliar format may throw them off. I find that once I explain the structure and advise them to pretend or assume the phrase lex dicit before each law, the students flow along with the reading of the laws themselves very well.

The scholia that follows each law is more or less in a form of prose that is easy to follow. Newton does like to use the ampersand in place of et (as seen in the above example). The scholia will give an expanded explanation of the law and provide examples of the law in form. These provide great material for class discussion (in English or in Latin) on the laws and the Latin text. I usually like to end the study with some composition assignments as will be seen below.

General Lesson Plan:

  1. Ask the students to create an “unfamiliar vocabulary list.”

Before reading or translating, ask the students to create a list of all the Latin words they do not immediately recognize. This will help warm their minds to the reading and topics to be considered. This will also make your time reading flow more smoothly as it provides a reference aide and prevents the frustrating stop-start-stop-start pattern of reading as students fumble to look up words. The exercise will also lead students to recognize the high level of English derivatives in Latin during the 17th century.

When making an unfamiliar vocab list I generally ask students to write down the genitive singular and gender for nouns and the principle parts of verbs. This also allows for discussion on appropirate agreement, tense, syntax, etc. as we read. It is wise for students to also write down more than one meaning as sometimes the meaning most applicable to our context might not be the first word listed in the dictionary.

2. Reading the laws themselves

There are two approaches I generally follow for reading. The first is a prepared translation, meaning that students work through a written translation prior to a class reading and discussion. The second is a sight reading. With Newton’s passage I generally prefer a sight read, so that is the process I will provide here. IF you do prefer to assign students the task of translating the passage prior to the class reading, please please please do NOT allow them to read off their English translations during discussion time. Such time should be devoted to reading from the Latin text, not their English work.

A) Ask a student to read a portion of the Latin text in Latin. You may choose to have them read a clause or a phrase or an entire sentence. I sometimes, as the teacher, will read the entire law myself first to model pronunciation, particularly since some of these words are new. However, it is very important for the students to read out loud and to hear themselves and their classmates reading the language out loud.

B) Check for general understanding. Before someone renders an English interpretation of the phrase, discuss in general what is being discussed or happening. This does not necessitate taking every single word into account. If there is a word that is unfamiliar or unknown – skip it. Don’t let the words they don’t know rob them of what they do know. Use what they recognize and the context to get at the general meaning. This can be done in English or in Latin or in both languages.

C) Ask a student to interpret the phrase or sentence into English. This can be intimidating for some, so make sure to give praise for everything that is correct. If the student interprets the general sense correctly but errs in some grammatical particulars such as the number of a noun or the tense of a verb or skips over a word, I will praise the student for understanding the sentence. Then I will go back to “clean up grammar” but make sure the class (and student especially) understand we are doing that as an opportunity to review and understand the grammar. It is very important that students understand they can still read a passage and understand a reading even without 100% accuracy on vocabulary and grammar. After all, how many times do they understand Shakespeare’s English 100%?

D) At the end of a section, take time to recap or review what Newton has stated or is trying to explain. Once again this can be done in Latin or in English. Either way, you are now integrating physics and Latin!!!

See Step 3 Below on Class Discussion

E) I often will conclude these lessons by asking students to turn in a written translation. However, there are other ways to assess understanding of a passage and I used them abundantly!

3. Class Discussion

Content

As we read through the passage together in Latin, I like to take the opportunity to discuss what we are reading. Go beyond just translating what each word or sentence means, and explore what Newton is trying to teach us via the examples he is giving. Some of these discussions can take place via oral Latin conversation. Some might need to use English to explore the concepts of physics.  For example, in his third law Newton uses the example of a finger pressing on a stone in order to explain the third law of motion – for an action there is always an opposite and equal reaction.  Newton writes:

Quicquid premit vel trahit alterum, tantundem ab eo premitur vel trahitur. Si quis lapidem digito premit, premitur & huius digitus a lapide.

Newton is trying to demonstrate that while the finger is pressing the stone, the stone is also pressing back on the finger with an “opposite and equal reaction.”  Bring a stone to class to demonstrate. Or even a class set of stones. Then ask questions such as the following.

Omnes, premite lapidem tuum. Quid premitis? [ lapidem]. Quid digitus tuus premit? [lapidem] Quid lapis premit? [digitum] Quid ab lapide premitur? [digitus] Quid ab digito premitur? [lapis]

Estne reactio et contraria et aequalis actioni? [Ita vero!]

Style

Also take time to discuss Newton’s style of writing. He makes some intentional word choices in terms of both vocabulary and arrangement. For example, note that he uses both the verbs premit and trahit in that first sentence. This is the sentence that both follows the third law of motion (seen above) and introduces the scholia demonstrating the third law. Why does he use both of these particular verbs?  Note that premit is then used in the example of the stone. The lines that follow (not shown here) go on to use the example of a horse dragging (trahit) a rock tied with a rope.  Thus, these two verbs are chosen as they apply directly to the examples Newton will give.  Also note that in the second sentence Newton juxtaposes the words premit and premitur. He is using a rhetorical device called anadiplosis to place particular emphasis not only on this action, but on the change from active to passive in the example of this action. Brilliant!

4. Composition

As has been pointed out, each scholia follows the statement of each lex. The scholia usually provides at least one example of the law in action such as the trundling hoop or the horse with the rope and the rock. Ask students to compose their own original scholia in Latin to demonstrate one of the three laws of motion. I usually assign the topic of a baseball being hit by a bat. Before composing we discuss how this action reflects each of Newton’s laws, how this example might resemble those Newton has already given, and what parts of Newton’s writing specifically might be applied to such a scholia. Require that the students begin their composition by restating Newton’s law. Encourage them to use Newton’s vocabulary and imitate his style as much as possible.

I usually have the students turn in a rough draft to which I make edits. I advise them on corrections needed without giving the answers. For example, I might write that a tense or a case needs to be changed. Or, I might suggest that they pay attention to noun-verb or noun-adjective agreement in a certain sentence. I want to guide my young scientists in the right direction without doing the work for them. After the final copies are turned in, send an email to parent to praise the physics lesson and the scientific compositions the students created in Latin class! This is a lesson sure to encourage both your students and their parents in the value of Latin in the world of science.

 

 

 

 

Veritas Press Teacher Training 2018

I am pleased to announce that I will return to beautiful Lancaster, Pennsylvania this summer to speak at the annual Veritas Press Teacher Training Conference on July 11- 13. If you attended last year, you may recall that I walked through best practices in teaching through Latin for Children, Latin Alive Book 1, and Wheelock.  This year I will be taking on some different topics, though still related to these same ages and stages. (If you missed the 2017 conference you can get my Latin sessions through Veritas Press).

Here is a sneak peek at the topics I am speaking on this year!

Latin: The Key to the Grammar School

Latin is often considered a core element to a classical education, even in the younger years of grammar school. This session will explore the reasons why Latin is a key component in the grammar years and how this study can support and reinforce other subjects. Topics covered will include vocabulary, grammar, enrichment, and integrative opportunities with other subjects.

Latin: Taking it Beyond Vocabulary

This second session will build on the vocabulary skills introduced in session one. The goal of teaching Latin is to be able to read wonderful stories written in this ancient and beautiful language. In this session the class will move beyond vocabulary to consider how students can apply words to simple sentences, eventually reading simple stories. This class will use lessons within the Latin for Children series along with stories from the Libellus de Historia Reader series to demonstrate how to teach students to read Latin.

Latin I for All Children

As enrollment grows and new students join existing schools and programs, how do we bring new students into our Latin programs? This seminar will explore ways to welcome new students and set them up for success in classical languages. We will look at entry points for grammar, logic, and rhetoric programs. We will also consider opportunities for additional support as students adapt and grow.

Using Latin Alive!

As students mature their styles of learning change, and so must our style of teaching. The paradigms are the same, but we must move beyond them to find ways to make Latin come alive for our students. This session will highlight teaching strategies for older students utilizing some of the lessons and tools of the Latin Alive program. Karen Moore, Latin teacher and author of Latin Alive, will also share a number of techniques she has developed as we review the finer points of Latin grammar, reading, and even a little composition.

 

For more information on the Veritas Teacher Training Conference, including registration visit https://teachertraining.veritaspress.com/#about

 

Latin Practicum @ ACCS with Karen Moore and Tim Griffith

I am very excited to partner with Tim Griffith in bringing a full day of Latin wonder to the pre-conference for the 2018 Repairing the Ruins Conference, hosted by the Association of Classical Christian Schools. My distinguished colleague is a professor of classical studies at New St. Andrews College and the brilliant creator of Picta Dicta (click to see my earlier post extolling this site!). I have enjoyed getting to know him over the last year as we exchanged ideas and shared our passion for Latin. Our goal as we join forces is to bring together teachers from a variety of disciplines, approaches, and backgrounds to discuss "best practices" for the various ages and stages of learning. Every teacher has their own strengths, weaknesses, and preferences. Likewise, our students all have various approaches to learning. The goal is to find the best ways to engage students in a variety of approaches to strengthen not only their skill sets in language, but their love for learning. Tim and I will also share a wide variety of resources for use inside the classroom as well as for teacher development outside the classroom. Read the rest of this entry »

Gingerbread Construction – Recipes and Tips

On this blog site I have posted multiple projects that teach lessons in ancient architecture via gingerbread. This particular post will offer a "behind the scenes" look at the construction process. Read on for information on creative tools, gingerbread and icing recipes, and a variety of construction tips. Caveat: this post will make you hungry! Read the rest of this entry »

Edible Architecture: Hadrian’s Wall

Among the most creative of our edible construction projects was Hadrian's Wall. This project was very unique, very different from other projects of its kind. First, instead of recreating a finished structure, we opted to recreate the structure in process. Second, this project did not use any gingerbread. However, like all of our other edible architecture projects we did recreate a structure that was significant to the classical world, and every piece was edible. Read on to learn a little history behind the real wall, and then how to build your own sweet replica. Read the rest of this entry »

Columbus Day Reading: Integrating History, Language, and Science

Each October my 9th grade students enjoy reading selections from the Latin Letter of Columbus. Columbus addressed his to the monarchs of Spain, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, and thus he originally wrote the letter in Spanish. The monarchs were delighted by the discovery and immediately wanted to share news of this new world with all of Europe. Therefore, in 1493 they  published Columbus' letter in Latin, and sent it throughout all of Europe. At that time Latin was the lingua franca of the day, and every well-educated man, woman, and child would be able to read these great tidings. This leaves us a wonderful sample of Renaissance Latin about historical places and events on our side of the pond. Read on to learn how I use this letter to integrate the study of Latin with American History and how this provides the basis for a creative composition assignment! Read the rest of this entry »

Latin Authors in Italy: A Study Tour for Teachers

This summer I was afforded the great blessing of attending Latin Authors in Italy, a study tour designed specifically for high school Latin teachers. The title and description resonated with me immediately. Here I was promised the opportunity to read Latin authors in situ, to walk through the remains of Ancient Rome with an experienced archaeologist, and to discuss practical pedagogical applications with an experienced high school Latin teacher. The balance of culture, history, art, and literature described seemed almost too good to be true. The experience did not disappoint, on the contrary it exceeded my every expectation. Read on for my full review of the summer study program every Latin teacher dreams of (or should). Read the rest of this entry »

Vocabulary Building with Picta Dicta

Picta Dicta is an innovative and highly engaging tool for students to build their Latin vocabulary. This program could easily serve as an introduction for young students into the delightful world of Latin. The lessons would also prove a wonderful supplement to any Latin curricula, or even as a summer strengthening program for Latin students. The approach engages students in learning vocabulary through pictures and images rather than the usual vocab word list found in most textbooks. Read the rest of this entry »